Refinement During the Edo era there were contrasting concepts of what was refined(thuya).
On the hand, the townspeople liked to dress up showily, copying the styles of the courtesans and dandies in the ukiyoe woodblock prints. On the other hand, regulations promoting frugality(plus the age-old influence of wabi and sabi) encouraged them to seek more subtle expressions of fashion and luxury.
Metropolitan style thus consists in finding the perfect balance between the flashy and the austere.
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